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HACCP Concept and Difference between SS 444, SS 590, ISO 22000, and FSSC 22000

Posted by: Helen Chin Date: 07 Jun 2024

The concept of HACCP was first developed in the 1960s at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the USA to ensure safe food for its astronauts.

HACCP is based on seven principles that provide a systematic and scientific approach to identifying, evaluating, and controlling significant food safety hazards. These principles were developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a joint initiative of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

It focuses on control measures for significant hazards rather than relying only on end-product inspection and testing.

HACCP principles are incorporated into various certification standards and schemes within the food industry. These standards require the implementation of HACCP principles as part of a broader food safety management system.

Let’s discover some of the prominent food safety certification schemes that incorporate HACCP principles.


Singapore Standards – SS 444, SS 590

Both schemes require the organisation to establish an HACCP system with the application of twelve essential steps, including seven HACCP principles according to Codex, along with pre-requisite programs and management system requirements such as documented food safety policy and objectives, internal audit, management review, etc. within the food safety management systems.

SS 590 is a modified variant of ISO 22000:2005 and has slightly more requirements to fulfil than SS 444. The standard has been redrafted to ensure its viability for implementation by small and medium food organisations. SS 590 is an “intermediate Standard“ to attain the ISO 22000 standard.

Learn more about our SS 444 and SS 590 certification (under Singapore SAC accreditation) and training service.


ISO Standard – ISO 22000

ISO 22000 is an international standard for food safety management systems established by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO).

ISO 22000 is a broader food safety management system that incorporates the principles of HACCP as a pre-requisite program and a fundamental part of its requirement. It also includes other management system requirements that follow the ISO’s common high-level structure (HLS) framework. It is based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle.

HLS consists of a common 10-clause developed by ISO to ensure greater harmonisation among its many different management systems standards, such as quality management (ISO 9001) or environmental management (ISO 14001).

The common 10 clauses are Scope, Normative Reference, Terms and Definitions, Context of the organisation, Leadership, Planning, Support, Operation (covers HACCP principle and PRP in this chapter), Performance Evaluation, and Improvement.

ISO 22000 standard introduced the concept of “operational pre-requisite programs (OPRPs)” to add to the existing concepts of pre-requisite programs (PRPs) and Critical Control Points (CCP).

ISO 22000 is an internationally recognised standard providing global credibility to organisations that achieve certification. It demonstrates compliance with internationally accepted best practices for food safety management and can enhance market access, especially for organisations operating in international markets or supplying to multinational customers.

Learn more about our ISO 22000 certification (under Singapore SAC accreditation) and ISO 22000 training courses.


GFSI recognised scheme – FSSC 22000

FSSC 22000 scheme has more requirements to be implemented compared to SS 444, SS 590, and ISO 22000.

FSSC 22000 consists of three main components:


a) ISO 22000: FSSC 22000 is based on the international standard ISO 22000, which specifies the requirements for a food safety management system.

b) ISO/TS 22002-x, PAS 221: FSSC 22000 incorporates the ISO/TS 22002-x series and PAS 221 of technical specifications, which provide specific requirements for pre-requisite programs (PRPs) relevant to different sectors of the food industry. These technical specifications address areas such as manufacturing, catering, food packaging manufacturing, transport and storage, manufacturing of feed and animal food, and food retail.

  • ISO/TS 22002-1 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - Part 1: Food manufacturing
  • ISO/TS 22002-2 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - Part 2: Catering
  • ISO/TS 22002-3 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - Part 3: Farming*
  • ISO/TS 22002-4 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - Part 4: Food packaging manufacturing
  • ISO/TS 22002-5 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - Part 5: Transport and storage
  • ISO/TS 22002-6 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - Part 6: Feed and animal food production
  • BSI/ PAS 221 - Pre-requisite programs on food safety - food retail

For example, if you are in the food catering sector, the applicable PRP standard to be implemented will be ISO/TS 22002-2.

Note: *Not within the scope of FSSC 22000 V6.


c) FSSC 22000 Additional Requirements: In addition to ISO 22000, ISO/TS 22002-x, and PAS 221, FSSC 22000 requires specific requirements to be implemented, such as follows, depending on food chain categories:

  • Management of services and purchased materials
  • Product labelling and printed materials
  • Food defense
  • Food fraud
  • Allergen management
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Food safety and quality culture
  • Quality control
  • Transport, storage and warehousing
  • Hazard control and measures for preventing cross-contamination
  • PRP verification
  • Product design and development
  • Health status (for animal feed)
  • Equipment management
  • Food loss and waste

By integrating these three components, FSSC 22000 provides a comprehensive framework for food safety management that addresses the specific needs of the food industry.

FSSC 22000 is a certification scheme recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI).

Many retailers and food manufacturers require their suppliers to be certified to a GFSI-recognized standard as a condition of doing business. Achieving certification to a GFSI-recognized standard can, therefore facilitate market access and help suppliers meet customer requirements.

Learn more about our FSSC 22000 certification (under Germany DAkkS accreditation) and FSSC 22000 training service.

Summary of different schemes based on HACCP principles:

   SS 444  SS 590  ISO 22000  FSSC 22000
Standard requirement 



Covers HACCP principles according to the Codex Alimentarius Covers HACCP principles according to the Codex Alimentarius Covers HACCP principles according to the Codex Alimentarius Covers HACCP principles according to the Codex Alimentarius
CCP monitoring CCP and/ or OPRP monitoring CCP and/ or OPRP monitoring CCP and/ or OPRP monitoring
Pre-requisite program
- reference to Codex General Principle of Food Hygiene CAC/ RCP 1-1969
Pre-requisite program
- reference to Codex General Principle of Food Hygiene CAC/ RCP 1-1969
Pre-requisite program
- consider applicable part of the ISO/TS 22002-x, or applicable code of practice
Pre-requisite program
- mandatory implement specific PRP standards depending on sectors (ISO/TS 22002-x, PAS 221)
Management system requirement Management system requirement (modified adoption of ISO 22000:2005) Management system requirement
(Follows ISO high-level structure common 10-clause)
Management system requirement
(Follows ISO high-level structure common 10-clause)
      Additional specific requirements by Foundation FSSC
Scheme owner Singapore Standard Singapore Standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Foundation FSSC, The Netherlands
Recognition Singapore Standard adopting Codex international guidelines Singapore Standard adopting Codex international guidelines Internationally recognised standard Internationally recognised standard
Recognised by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)       GFSI-recognised


Conclusion:

Ultimately, the choice between FSSC 22000, ISO 22000, SS 590, and SS 444 certification depends on factors such as industry requirements, market preferences, and organisational objectives.


With a commitment to excellence and a global reputation for delivering top-tier certification services, TÜV SÜD stands out as a reliable partner for food safety solutions, helping your business align seamlessly with international standards. Get started on your certification journey with TÜV SÜD.

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