Functional Safety for Rail Blog
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Functional Safety for the Rail Industry in India

Posted by: TÜV SÜD Expert Date: 07 Aug 2023

Rail systems play a vital role in modern transportation, carrying millions of passengers and freight across vast networks. With such immense responsibility, upholding safety standards and ensuring functionality becomes paramount. The seamless operation of rail systems depends on robust measures that safeguard the well-being of passengers, protect infrastructure, and mitigate potential risks.

In this blog, we will delve into the importance of maintaining high standards of functionality safety in rail systems. We will explore the key factors involved, including the technical requirements, industry standards, and the role of regulatory bodies. Additionally, we will understand the need for functional safety training and the advantages of the Functional Safety Certification Program (FSCP).

What is Functional Safety in Railways?

Functional safety is critical to ensuring the safety and reliability of modern railway systems. It focuses on minimising risks associated with system malfunctions, failures, and errors to ensure passenger safety and system reliability.

Rail functional safety encompasses designing, operating, and maintaining various safety-related functions and systems. The goal is to ensure these systems function as intended and respond appropriately in abnormal or emergencies.

EN 50126, EN 50129, and EN 50128: Functional Safety Standards in the Rail Industry

The rail industry relies on a set of functional safety standards known as EN 50126, EN 50129, and EN 50128. These standards were developed by CENELEC (European Committee for Electro-technical Standardisation) and apply to heavy rail systems, light rail, and urban mass transportation systems.

  • EN 50126
    • It is meant for specification and demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety (RAMS) in railways.
    • The plans and reports of Railway RAMS encompass a Safety Plan, a Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment (HARA) Report, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and a Safety Requirements Specification, among others.
  • EN 50129
    • This standard defines the requirements for safety-related electronic systems for signalling – both hardware and software.
    • It provides detailed guidance on developing, implementing, and verifying safety-related electronic systems.
  • EN 50128
    • It is called "Railway Applications - Communication, Signalling, and Processing Systems."
    • It defines additional conditions for developing, verifying, and implementing safety-critical software used in railway control and protection systems.
    • It has five Safety Integrity Levels (SIL), from SIL 0 to SIL 4.
    • Higher SIL levels, such as SIL 4, necessitate stricter checks and more rigorous controls, while SIL 0 is unrelated to safety.

These three standards work together to approach functional safety in railway systems comprehensively. They ensure that the development, integration, and operation of safety-related systems and software are systematic and controlled.

Technical Requirements of Functional Safety

The functional safety in railways adheres to specific technical requirements, as specified in the three standards above - EN 50126, EN 50129, and EN 50128. They are meant for hazard identification, risk assessment, safety integrity levels (SIL), and safety functions.

  • Hazard identification
    • It involves identifying potential hazards and analysing their consequences to determine the necessary safety measures.
  • Risk assessment
    • It helps in evaluating the probability and severity of hazards and aids in decision-making for risk reduction measures.
  • Safety integrity levels (SIL)
    • SIL are assigned to safety functions based on their criticality – ranging from SIL 1 (low risk) to SIL 4 (high risk).
  • Safety functions
    • These are designed to respond appropriately to abnormal conditions or failures. These functions include emergency braking, fail-safe communication systems, and automatic train protection systems.

Importance of Functional Safety Training in the Rail Industry

The rail industry recognises the importance of functional safety training for its professionals. Specialised training programs provide in-depth knowledge and practical skills to manage and ensure the functional safety of railway systems.

Training equips professionals with a thorough understanding of the functional safety standards and requirements like RAMS for railway systems. It covers various topics such as risk assessment methodologies, hazard analysis techniques, safety integrity levels (SIL), and system reliability. This empowers the professionals to contribute effectively to designing, developing, and maintaining safe railway systems.

By investing in the Functional safety training and certification program, professionals and organisations can play a significant role in building and maintaining the highest standards of safety in the industry.

Advantages of the Functional Safety Certification Program (FSCP)

The functional safety training and certification program offers numerous advantages to individuals and organisations in the rail industry.

  • Certification validates competence and demonstrates the professionals' expertise in functional safety standards like EN 50126, EN 50129, and EN 50128.
  • Certified professionals have enhanced career prospects and higher credibility.
  • Certified professionals become valuable assets to their organisations, fostering trust among stakeholders and clients.
  • Organisations with certified professionals ensure compliance with standards and foster a safety-focused culture.
  • Compliance with functional safety standards can also open up new business opportunities and partnerships for organisations, as safety is a top priority for railway projects worldwide.

The Functional Safety Certification Program (FSCP) is a recognised benchmark for functional safety competence in the rail industry. It provides a structured and standardised approach to training and certification, enabling professionals to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to ensure functional safety in railway systems.


Rail functional safety is crucial for ensuring the safety and reliability of modern railway systems. The EN 50126, EN 50129, and EN 50128 standards provide a comprehensive framework for managing functional safety throughout the life cycle of railway systems. Compliance with these standards, supported by technical requirements and functional safety training, prevents accidents and protects lives.

Functional safety measures mitigate risks and protect the well-being of passengers, personnel, and infrastructure by implementing technical requirements, adherence to industry standards, and rigorous testing and verification processes.

TÜV SÜD's expertise in providing comprehensive solutions and certifications for functional rail safety further strengthens the industry's commitment to upholding the highest safety standards. The functional safety training and certification program enhances the competence of professionals, validates their expertise, and contributes to developing a safety-focused culture. By prioritising functional safety, we can create a future where rail systems operate with utmost reliability, efficiency, and, most importantly, safety.

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