Four questions about the use of face mask — answered
“Different types of masks provide different levels of protection against the virus and users should base their choice on the level of risk they could potentially face.”
Dr. Royth von Hahn
Senior Vice President, Medical and Health Services, TÜV SÜD Product Service Division
Monday, April 6, 2020
The COVID-19 outbreak globally has led to an unprecedented increase in demand for masks globally. Just like any other preventive measures, masks have the potential of flattening the curve as they can prevent infected people from spreading the virus and protect healthcare workers from infected patients.
While it is a common practice to wear a mask even when one is having light symptoms of a cold in Asia, this practice is less common in Europe and Americas. As COVID-19 is placing an increasingly high burden on the capabilities of health system worldwide, any other respiratory infections that could be avoided at a personal level would be considered a positive contribution to the fight against COVID-19.
Although wearing a face mask does not completely prevent infection, it can limit the spread of the virus by blocking virus-laden droplets from entering the airways which is postulated as one of the main routes of transmission by the coronavirus. At the same time, user habits concerning face masks can have a profound impact on its effectiveness. Unless worn correctly, it may inadvertently increase one’s risk of infection.
The level of protection offered can also differ between varying types of masks. Dr. Royth von Hahn, Senior Vice President, Medical and Health Services from TÜV SÜD, notes, “There is a wide variety of masks available such as N95, KN95, FFP2, to name a few, and each serves different purposes. It is important to know their differences, the levels of protection each mask can provide and the correct use of various masks.
In this article, Dr. von Hahn provides further insights on four frequently asked questions around the correct use and efficacy of protective masks.
Different types of masks provide different levels of protection against the virus. Dr. von Hahn explains that users should base their choice on the level of risk they could potentially face.
The World Health Organization (WHO) advises that there is no immediate need for healthy individuals, who are not taking care of or residing with a suspected case of infection placed under isolation, to use a mask. However, the situation is dynamic and changing constantly; do check official sources frequently for the updated information. Choose to buy only what you need. Before buying masks for personal use, please always consider if there is sufficient supply for healthcare workers in your region.
Protective masks can differ in terms of their Bacterial Filter Efficiency (BFE) and Particle Filter Efficiency (PFE) properties. BFE measures the filtration efficiency of masks using mean particle size (MPS) in bacterial challenge at around 3.0 microns; PFE, on the other hand, measures the filtration efficiency of a mask using non-living, nonviable particles fixed in size from 0.1 microns. Masks with PFE properties will provide users with better levels of protection as the coronavirus itself measures between 0.05 and 0.2 microns in diameter. The two most widely available types of masks are:
Unlike the abovementioned varieties, surgical masks and medical-grade N95 masks offer the same bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) of no less than 95%. Users should note that wearing a disposable medical mask provides enough protection if they are in a public place without contact with patients.
Surgical masks will need to conform to international medical health product standards. Manufacturers are responsible to ensure that the masks are tested or approved to the relevant product standards as required in the country where it is sold. The standards vary from country to country. There are various local standards that apply in testing the efficacy of masks such as BS EN, ASTM and GB. Some of the standard tests for protective masks include particle filtration efficiency, bacterial filtration efficiency and antibacterial efficiency tests. "Other testing parameters include breathability, flammability, resistance to liquid penetration and fit," notes Dr. von Hahn.
Be sure to check the use-by date on your mask. Masks that are past their expiry dates may not be able to provide the same level of protection and may be subject to degradation. Always purchase your masks from known sellers and websites to ensure their authenticity and quality.
When purchasing masks, always check the packaging details to ensure the effectiveness and quality of the masks. The packaging information typically includes: the name of the manufacturer and the relevant model number, an indication that the particle filtration efficiency is 80% or higher for surgical masks and more than 95% for N95 respirators and expiry dates.
Many companies globally are doing their part in pandemic relief by converting their production facilities to produce face masks or other critical essential medical supplies. TÜV SÜD is also contributing by working with our customers to expedite the testing process to ensure the essential medical supplies exported meet the target market’s requirements.
The European Commission has released a document on Conformity Assessment Procedures for Protective Equipment for prospective manufacturers who would like to support the pandemic relief.
‘Extended use’ refers to the practice of wearing the same respirator for repeated close contact encounters with suspected cases of infection without removing the mask in between. Reusing the same mask usually means the usage of the same respirator during multiple encounters with people or re-using a respirator on different occasions. While individual preferences may differ, it is strongly recommended that users should never share the use of the same mask and should not reuse single-use masks. (Source)
Do not use disinfectants, alcohol or apply heat to disinfect the mask. If it is dirty, damp or deformed, the mask should be replaced.
Wearing a mask is just one of the preventive measures necessary to combat the pandemic. There are other important practices which we should adhere to:
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